Newspapers

Many newspaper articles can only be accessed through archival organizations that charge a fee. Articles are arranged in chronological order rather than by author or title. I maintain a digital library of many of the newspaper articles, academic journals, some books, government records, and miscellaneous materials about the Bannisters listed in this bibliography. Access is provided upon request.

The first illustrated masthead of the "The Liberator" was printed on the 17th issue of the paper, April 23, 1831.

Boston Public Library

Marriage.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, November 6, 1840.

Marriage announcement of Christiana Babcock and Dessiline Carteaux.

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"Storebreaking." The Daily Atlas, Boston, Massachusetts, May 11, 1852,1.

Describes breaking into E.M. Bannister's barber shop in Malden, Massachusetts.

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“Business Enterprise of Colored People in Boston.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, January 27, 1854, 15.

An article talking about successful Black business persons in Boston. Christiana is listed.

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“Colored Genius.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, August 11, 1854, 127.

Describes Bannister’s painting, The Ship Outward Bound which was given to J.V. De Grasse.

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The Boston Courier, Boston, Massachusetts, October 9, 1854, 3.

Legal Ad announcing Christiana's intent to dissolve her marriage with Dessiline Carteaux

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The Hair.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, August 1, 1856, 2.

Notice by publisher highly recommending Christana's services.

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"Barber's Shop for Sale." The Boston Herald, Boston, Massachusetts, May 21, 1857, 4.

Lists E.M. Bannister's barber shop for sale in the "shoe manufacturing town of Marlboro, Massachusetts." Says the owner is about to go into other business.

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“Married.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, June 19, 1857, 3.

Announcing the Marriage of Edward M. Bannister and Christiana Carteaux by Rev. Charles Mason on 10 June 1857.

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“Commemorative Meeting in Faneuil Hall.” The Liberator,  Boston, Massachusetts, March 5, 1858, 3.

Lists Edward Bannister as a member of the Attucks Glee Club singing Colored American Heroes of 1776 during a Commemorative Meeting in Faneuil Hall on March 5, 1858 honoring Crispus Attucks as an American Hero at the Boston Massacre.

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"Meeting of Colored Citizens." The Boston Traveler, Boston, Massachusetts, May 25, 1859, 4.

Describes the meeting of the colored citizens of Boston regarding the Oberlin Rescue Trials. Lists Edward M. Bannister as Secretary.

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“Oberlin Rescuers, Meeting of Colored Citizens of Boston.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, June 10, 1859, 2.

A meeting of the colored citizens of Boston was held on Monday evening, May 23rd, 1859, at the Twelfth Baptist Church, for the purpose of sympathizing with the persons implicated  in the Oberlin Rescue case, and devising ways and means to assist them and their families. Edward M. Bannister was appointed Secretary.

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“New England, Colored Citizens’ Convention.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, August 19, 1859, 4.

On August 1, 1859, a New England Colored Citizens Convention met in Boston. Delegates from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Canada were in attendance. The convention was assembled to take into consideration "the best means of promoting the "moral, social and political elevation" of Blacks within New England throughout the free states. Because the Fugitive Slave Law and the Dredd Scott decision had "distracted and unsettled" Blacks and made inroads upon rights, it was necessary that "they come together so that they may compare notes, talk over the cause of their sufferings, and see if any thing can better their condition."  Edward Bannister is listed as a member of the Committee on Roll.

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“New England Colored Citizen’s Convention.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, August 26, 1859, 3.

William Nell from the Business Committee says he received several letters “among them in interesting letter from Mrs. Banister,” 

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"The Combination Effort." The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, January 20, 1860, 3.

Announcement about a program to help the widows of the colored American heroes of Harper’s Ferry, and to promote the erection of a Monument to their memory. Tickets could be purchased from Christiana.

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"National Anti-Slavery Anniversary Subscription List." The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, February 11, 1861, 11.

Madame Carteaux donated $1.00.

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"Special Notices." The Boston Recorder, Boston, Massachusetts, February 21, 1861, 31

Advertisement by the Twelfth Baptist Society of their fair. Tickets could be purchased from Christiana at her 31 Winter Street shop.

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“Emancipation Day.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, December 26, 1862, 3.

A meeting in honor of President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was held at Tremont Temple, January 1st, 1863, under the auspices of the Union Progressive Association. Edward M. Bannister signed as a member of the Committee of Arrangements.

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"Association for the Relief of Destitute Contrabands." Boston Evening Transcript, September 26, 1862, 2. 

E.M. Bannister is chosen as Secretary of organization assembled by women to provide aid to the destitute contrabands.

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"Emancipation Celebration at the Tremont Temple." Boston Evening Transcript, January 1, 1863, 2. 

Edwin M. Bannister is appointed Secretary

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“Emancipation Day in Boston.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, January 16, 1863, 12.

Articles lists E.M. Banister as one of the Secretaries of the Union Progressive Association. There is also an ad for Madame Carteaux Bannister which lists her business address as 31 Winter Street in Boston.

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“The Black Man.” The Anglo-African, March 28, 1863, 1.

Claims criticism of the publication The Black Man is unjustified and that artists like Bannister were unknown until its publication.

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"54th Regiment." Boston Evening Transcript, May 12, 1863, 2. 

Madame Carteaux Bannister is listed as the President  of the Colored Soldiers Relief Society.

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“Improvement in Champooing and Hair Dyeing.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, May 22, 1863, 84.

In addition to advertising her services, notice also announces that she has moved.

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"A Concert." Boston Evening Transcript, October 8, 1863, 2. 

An advertisement for a concert and reading at the Twelfth Street Baptist Church. Ticket could be purchased at Madame Carteaux Bannister's shop.

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“Meeting in Boston.” The Anglo-African, November 7, 1863.

Report on a meeting in Boston in response to Massachusetts offering the Massachusetts Black Regiment $10 per month. Edward Bannister was appointed Secretary.

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“Emancipation Day.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, December 25, 1863.

A meeting at 12th Baptist Chuch to plan for Emancipation Day . Edward M. Bannister is appointed Secretary.

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“Meeting in Boston.” The Anglo-African, May 14, 1864.

A meeting was held in the Joy Street Church to "discuss matters relative to the condition of colored citizens." A committee of 13 was appointed. Edward Bannister was a member of this committee. 

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“Letter to the Editor.” The Anglo-African, May 28, 1864, 1.

A letter probably written by Christiana, as President of the Colored Ladies Sanitary Commission, discussing their plans for the Fair.

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The Anglo-African, August 2, 1864.

Lengthy article that quotes Mrs. Carteaux Bannister, in response to the way colored soldiers were being treated by the government, as saying, "she would rather beg from door to door than that her husband should go to the war." Article also states that she had several brothers in the war.

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“Champooing and Hair Dyeing.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, September 16, 1864, 4.

Christiana's workplace moves to 31 Winter Street.

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“Ladies' Sanitary Fair.”  Boston Evening Transcript, October 19, 1864, 4.

A gathering for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers of Massachusetts at Mercantile Hall in Summer Street. Edward Bannister donated a portrait of the Lamented Col. Shaw, valued at two hundred dollars to be sold off by a raffle.

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"Sanitary Fair of Colored Ladies." Boston Traveler, Boston, Massachusetts, October 19, 1864, 6.

A gathering for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers of Massachusetts at Mercantile Hall in Summer Street. Edward Bannister donated a portrait of the Lamented Col. Shaw, valued at two hundred dollars to be sold off by a raffle.

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"E.M. Bannister Portrait Painter," The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, October 21, 1864, 171.

An advertisement by Bannister. Lists his studio address as Room 85, Studio Building, Tremont Street, Boston.

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“Sanitary Fair of Colored Ladies.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, October 21, 1864, 2.

A gathering for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers of Massachusetts at Mercantile Hall in Summer Street. Edward Bannister donated a portrait of the Lamented Col. Shaw, valued at two hundred dollars to be sold off by a raffle.

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“Letters Written on the Wing No. II.” The Anglo-African, November 5, 1864, 1.

A Lengthy article praising Christiana Carteaux Bannister for organising the fair to benefit wounded soldiers.

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“Portrait Painter.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, November 11, 1864.

Edward advertises as a portrait painter in Room 85 in the Studio Building on Tremont Street.

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“Affairs About Boston.” The Anglo-African, November 12, 1864.

Article states the the portrait of Col. Shaw which was hanging in at the Fair to benefit wounded soldiers is on exhibit for sale at Child and Jenks on 121 Tremont Street. Article also says that several potential buyers are interested.

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“Letter from Mrs. Child.” The Liberator, Boston, Massachusetts, November 18, 1864, 1.

Letter to the Editor of the National Anti-Slavery Standard describing her visit to the Fair for Widows and Orphans of Colored Soldiers. Includes a description of Bannister’s full length portrait of Col. Shaw hanging at the head of Mercantile Hall.

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“In Boston.” The Boston Post, Supplement, June 19, 1865, 5.

Bannister's activism also took other forms: on June 17, 1865, Bannister marshalled around 200 members of the Twelfth Baptist Sunday School at a Grand Temperance Celebration on Boston Common. They marched under a banner reading "Equal rights for all men."

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“Art Items.”  Daily Evening Transcript, March 5, 1866, 2.

In discussing the first reception of the Boston Art Club, the author mentions visiting Bannister's studio while he was working on a landscape. Says Banister "displays great talent for one who has had so little practice."

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“Boston Artists' Picture Sale.” Daily Evening Transcript, April 24, 1866, 2.

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“Local Intelligence.”  Boston Evening Transcript, April 27, 1866, 2.

Announces the sale of paintings by Leonard & Co. includes the sale of Bannister's Harvest Time for $25.

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“Catalogue of Artists.”  Daily Evening Transcript, February 26, 1867, 1.

Lists artist's contributions to the Wheelock Fund on exhibition and sale at Williams and Everett.  The wood Gatherers by Bannister is listed as #28.

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“Art and Artists: The Studios of Providence.” Providence Evening Press, October 26, 1869, 1.

The City Council gave a grant to open a gallery in the upper story of the Ward Room on Benefit Street where local artists can show their work. Article also mentions the future of an academy of design. Bannister is described as a “young artist of much merit.” Article also says his “studies in crayon, of the human form, are very spirited.” Article mentions a portrait of Garrison, The News Boy, and June Day in the Woods.

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​“Exhibition at Howard Hall.” Providence Journal, September 21, 1872, 2.

Edward Bannister is awarded a diploma for his painting "Summer Afternoon."

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"The State Fair, The Rhode Island Industrial Exhibition." The Providence Evening Press, September 10, 1873, 4.

In Division 10, Fine Arts Bannister's oil painting "A Family Evening" is listed a for exhibition. 

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"Boston Artists and the Centennial Exhibition." Boston Post, March 22, 1876, 3. 

Article lists Edward as a participant.

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"The Fine Arts: The Centennial Exhibition." The Boston Globe, April 3, 1876, 4. 

Describes the works by Massachusetts artists that will be on display at the Centennial Exhibition. Bannister's Under the Oaks is specifically noted.

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"Art and Artists: Boston Paintings for the Centennial." Boston Evening Transcript, April 4, 1876, 6. 

Describes the paintings to be shown at the Centennial.

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“Art and Artists: The Centennial Exhibition.” The Daily Evening Traveller, April 6, 1876, 1.

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"The Massachusetts Centennial Art Exhibition at the Galleries of the Boston Art Club."  Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1876, 8

Article describes Bannister's painting Under the Oaks as one of the finest and largest in the exhibition.

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“Providence and Vicinity: Town Talk.” Providence Morning Star, April 24, 1876, 1.

States that Bannister’s painting, “Under the Oaks,” received an offer to purchase by a “Boston party” with an understanding that it go to the Centennial Art Gallery first.

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"The Massachusetts Art Exhibit." Boston Post, May 11, 1876, 6.

Edward exhibited some of his works in the show. Article does not name the paintings.

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The Boston Globe September 29, 1876, 3. 

Lists the names of artists who received an  award at the Centennial in Philadelphia.

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Boston Evening Transcript. November 8, 1876, 6. 

Announces the sale of some of Bannister's works by Noyes & Blakeslee.

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"The Sale of Art at Noyes and Blakeslee's." Boston Evening Transcript. May 17, 1877, 4. 

Announces the sale of some of Bannister's works by Noyes & Blakeslee. It does not name Bannister's paintings.

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"The Art Club Exhibition." Boston Evening Transcript. April 22, 1878, 8.

Bannister's painting On the Pawtuxett River is shown.

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"The Art Awards." Boston Evening Transcript. November 3, 1878, 4.

The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association awards Bannister a bronze medal for #81, a large landscape.

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"The Collection at Williams and Everett's." Boston Evening Transcript. May 16, 1879, 1.

132 painting are for sale including one from Bannister.

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"Art Notes." Boston Evening Transcript. January 27, 1880, 4.

Bannister's has a painting at Elliot's gallery. While not named, it is described in detail.

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"Art and Artists." Boston Evening Transcript. April 2, 1880, 6.

The Hastings and Davenport gallery are exhibiting two of Bannister's paintings, a landscape with cattle and "The Winter Piece" which the author says was also displayed at the Charlestown Art Club. The article also says that Bannister recently finished a painting entitled "Evening" described as a poem in paint. "Behind a hill covered with umbrageous oaks, is seen a mass of clouds tinged with the last rays of the setting sun; while in the foreground is seen a pool of water fringed with flowers and shrubs. The subject is broadly treated , and with a genuine feeling for nature. Not a single evidence of animal life is seen in the picture, which represents perfect solitude, and is actually grand in its perfect repose."

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Boston Evening Transcript. September 23, 1881, 6.

Bannister's has a painting "Hillside Pasture" at Mechanics Fair.

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"Art Notes." Boston Evening Transcript. January 14, 1882, 6.

Bannister's has two paintings at Williams and Everett gallery, a small autumnal landscape and one recently shown at the Mechanic's Fair (Hillside Pasture).

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"Sale of Paintings." Boston Evening Transcript. April 13, 1883, 1.

Bannister's painting "An October Day" sold for $42.50 at Williams and Everett gallery.

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Providence Journal, May 3, 1883, 8.

The hall at a Providence Art Club concert was decorated with works from Bannister, S.R. Burleigh, and C. W. Stetson. 

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"The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association." Boston Evening Transcript. September 10, 1884, 1.

Bannister's painting "New England Hillside" is shown at their Triennial Exhibition.

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Art Notice.” Providence Journal, January 9, 1885, 5.

Edward placed an ad inviting the public to his studio at an exhibition and sale of his latest pictures and studies.

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"Sale of Paintings." Boston Evening Transcript. February 27, 1885, 1.

Two of Bannister's painting sell, "A View of the Connecticut at Westmoreland, N.H."  sold for $117.50 and "Driving Home the Cows" sold for $155.00.

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"Noyes and Blakeslee's Sale Collection." Boston Evening Transcript. April 8, 1885, 6.

Bannister's painting "Quiet Nook" is listed.

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Our Artists.” Providence Journal, September 27, 1885, 7.


Providence Art Club.” Providence Journal, November 13, 1885, 8.


“Picture Auction.” Providence Journal, November 26, 1885, 5.


Picture Auction.” Providence Journal, November 30, 1885, 5.


“The Art Club.” Providence Journal, April 24, 1886, 10.


“Art Gossip.” Providence Journal, April 25, 1886, 2.


“Art Notes.” Providence Journal, June 13, 1886, 2.

"Mr. Bannister has been so much occupied in getting his yacht ready for the summer that he has done very little painting - except that on the outside of his boat." 

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Art Gossip.” Providence Journal, September 19, 1886, 7.

"Mr. Bannister has returned from his nautical sketching season, and is occupying his studio in the Woods Building."

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“An Exhibition and Competitive Sale.” Providence Journal, November 18, 1886, 3.


“Art Gossip.” Providence Journal, December 5, 1886, 2.

Says that Bannister is working an a painting he plans to send to the Boston Art Club and "on Mr. Corlisa's big canvas..."


Rhode Island Yacht Club.” Providence Journal, January 28, 1887, 3.

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Mr. Banister's Exhibition.” Providence Journal, April 13, 1887, 8.

A review of Bannister's exhibition at Leith & Danforths Art Parlors, says of the show, “nor can it be said that it represents as well as might be wished the strongest side of Mr. Bannister’s art." Some of the works included in the show are An Early Morning, A Coming Storm, Hauling Sea Grass, and Spring Morning.

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Providence Studios.” Providence Journal, April 17, 1887, 8.

Long article that describes many of the studios by well known artists at the time, including Edward's. 

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Ben Davis.” Providence Journal, May 1, 1887, 10.

Describes a "large landscape representing a wide expanse of marsh, backed by a clump of trees, with a hay cart in the middle distance, and a warm and luminous sky of massive summer clouds." Says that the painting has been retouched and improved by Bannister.

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The Floods Came.” Providence Journal, June 23, 1887, 8.


Festival of the Year.” Providence Journal, December 1, 1887, 5.


Providence Journal, December 11, 1887, 7.

A large commission was given to Bannister to paint 8 pictures of his choice by a Boston firm of dealers.

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Providence Art Club.” Providence Journal, January 21, 1888, 3.

Edward represented the Providence Art Club at the obsequies of James S. Lincoln.

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Exhibition of Paintings.” Providence Journal, April 20, 1888, 5.

An exhibition of paintings at Stillman’s Art Gallery at 267 Westminster Street in April included Bannister’s The Coming Shower, Grove at Smith’s Palace, Evening, Oaks, Crossing the Bridge, and three works titled Study.

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“The Providence Art Club and Other Exhibitions.” The Boston Globe, October 28, 1888, 10.

Announced the opening of an art exhibition by the Providence Art Club on 31 October 1888. Edward Bannister is listed as a member of the committee in charge of the exhibition.

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“An Appeal to the Public.” Providence Journal, February 4, 1889, 5.

An ad raising funds for the Home for Aged Colored Women lists Christiana as a person to whom funds could be sent.

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Sales at Auction.” Providence Journal, February 8, 1889, 5.

An advertised auction by F. J. Sheldon in what appears to be an estate sale lists "oil paintings by Bannister."

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“Art Gossip.” Providence Journal, March 17, 1889, 6.

Describes a landscape as "one of the most important works that he has painted recently. It represents a flock of sheep grazing in a meadow in the foreground. Some trees on the left, a further stretch of meadow and a distant village make up the remainder of the composition, which is thoroughly representative of Mr. Bannister's art in landscape."

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“An Appeal.” Providence Journal, December 10, 1889, 6.

An ad raising funds for the Home for Aged Colored Women lists Christiana as a person to whom funds could be sent.

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“A Home for Aged Colored Women.” Newport Mercury, April 26, 1890, 1.

Detailed description of the dedication of the Home for Colored Women on Transit Street. Article describes C. Bannister as the financial agent. Article gives a complete list of the officers of the home as well as many of the attenders.

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"Winter Sports Enjoyed at Roger Williams Park." Providence Journal, January 25, 1891, 16.

"The celebrated landscape painter of this city, Mr. E. M. Bannister, a colored man, is one of the most expert skaters in the State, and always draws a crowd around him when executing upon a glare spot his intricate figures or spelling his name."

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"The Art Institute." The Providence News, October 30, 1891, page 6.

Provides a list of the works exhibited at the show. Edward is listed as a loaner of paintings including "September on the Palmer River" and "Rehoboth Woods."

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"Corporation of Home for Aged Colored Women in Yearly Session." Providence Journal, April 30, 1894, 2.

Discusses the proceedings of their annual meeting. Edward Bannister is elected to the Advisory Committee.

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"Supplementary Art Notes." Providence Journal, December 9, 1894, 16.

"Mr. E.M. Bannister has among his pictures recently finished one taken from a sketch obtained this summer at Newport. The interest centres in an old wreck in the fore, and the whole is treated with fine regard to atmospheric effect. Another sketch from the vicinity of Silver Spring, has this same charming atmospheric quality. He has now under way a figure piece, with the motive taken from an old biblical legend." 

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"Local Art Notes." Providence Journal, January 26, 1896, 13.

"At the studio of Mr. E.M. Bannister a very striking picture is to be seen, which is, as yet, in the rough. It is a life-size figure of the Christ, both attitude and expression indicating loving solicitude. The picture is designed to express the spirt of the text, 'Come Unto Me.'"

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"Local Art Notes." Providence Journal, May 24, 1896, 15.

"E.M. Bannister is at work on several commissions. Two small studies entitled Morning and Evening and a group of figures in a hay-field, enjoying their 'noon lunch,' are especially pleasing. A large canvas, 'Early Autumn' represents a picturesque landscape, rich in autumnal coloring."

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"Elmwood Avenue Free Baptist Church." Providence Journal, December 21, 1896, 3.

"Directly behind the pulpit was a picture of Christ, entitled, 'Invitation and Promise,' It was painted by E. M. Bannister of this city and was exhibited yesterday for the first time since its completion."

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"Local Art Notes." Providence Journal, January 17, 1897, 13.

Mr. E.M. Bannister has just finished the large picture of the Haymakers, which is a fine example of his landscape painting. The scheme of light and shade is effectively rendered and the foreground, with the figures seated on the grass beneath the trees, is excellent. He is at work at present on another large canvas which portrays a mountain lake surrounded by trees, the mountains looming up against the blue of the sky."

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"Artist Dies with Prayer on His Lips." Providence News, January 10, 1901, page 1.

Obituary of Edward. Says his ill health and weak heart is related to his early work in photography. Also says Christiana was born in Hayti and had come from San Francisco after her first husband had died.

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“Died in Church.” Providence Journal, January 11, 1901, 8.

Obituary announcing the death of Edward Bannister because of heart disease while at church in Providence, Rhode Island. 

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“Died.” Providence Journal, January 12, 1901, 6.

Announced the death of Edward Bannister on 09 January at 73 years old and funeral services on 12 January at Elmwood Avenue Baptist Church.

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“Distinguished Artist Buried Yesterday at Providence.” The Boston Globe, January 13, 1901, 4.

Obituary announcing the death and burial of Edward Bannister while at the Elmwood Avenue Free Baptist Church in Providence, Rhode Island.

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“The Week in Review.” Providence Journal, January 13, 1901, 6.

A list of notable persons who died during the week includes Edward Bannister, a “well-known colored artist of Providence.”

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​“Local Art Notes.” Providence Journal, January 13, 1901, 7.

Describes an attempt by local artists to arrange a memorial exhibition of Bannister’s works. 

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“Funeral of Edward M. Bannister, Noted Artist, Yesterday.” Providence Journal, January 13, 1901, 8.

Described the funeral service for Bannister, officiated by the Rev, S.A. Balisdell. Service was attended by artists from Providence and

Boston. Article goes into a detailed description of a floral arrangement that resembled an artist’s palette and lists the names of the artists who donated this floral arrangement. 

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“News of the Week.” Christian Advocate, January 17, 1901, 39.

Announced the death of Edward Bannister.

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“Obituary.” The Christian Standard, January 19, 1901, 395.

 Announced the death of Edward Bannister.

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“Announcements.” Providence Journal, January 20, 1901, 17.

A meeting of local artists will be held in Mr. Burleigh’s studio in the Fleur de Lys, on Tuesday evening 22 January to consider the question of a suitable memorial to the late Edward M. Bannister. The group decided on a monument for his grave.

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“Memorial to Mr. Bannister.” Providence Journal, January 25, 1901, 2.

Describes a meeting called by Mr. Burleigh  held in the studio in the Fleur de Lys building to create a memorial to honor Bannister. John N. Arnold was elected chairman and H.L. Hubert, Secretary and Allen W. Peck as treasurer. Sydney Burleigh, Elijah Baxter, Mr. Hays, Mr. Stacy Tolman, Mrs. E.W.T Smith, Katherine Austin, Mr. W. Staple Drowne, and George Whitaker were appointed committee members.

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“Arts and Crafts.” Providence Journal, March 17, 1901, 17.

Announces three paintings, one of a little girl with a captured bird, one of boys fishing, and one of cows returning from pasture, will be on display at Mendenhall’s Art Studio on Mathewson Street. The paintings come from a private collection in Brooklyn.

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“Local Art Notes.” Providence Journal, April 22, 1901, 8.

Announced the opening of a memorial exhibition of Bannister on May 14 at the Art Club. The committee was working to secure the painting Under the Oaks but could not locate it. 

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“An Appreciation.” Providence Journal, April 28, 1901, 8.

A two-column description of Bannister’s genius written by local artist G. W. W.

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“Bannister Memorial.” Providence Journal, May 15, 1901, 10.

Describes the opening of the memorial show at the Art Club. The show included over 100 of Bannister’s works, mostly contributed by locals. The article gives a complete list of everyone who contributed a piece. A catalog was published.

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Arnold, John. “Reminiscences and Appreciative Tribute by A Fellow Artist.” Providence Journal, May 19, 1901, 17.

Written by John N. Arnold, the article describes his first introduction to Bannister 35 years ago and his relationship to him thereafter. Also talks about his style of art and his major influences. Also mentions that they had adjoining studios in the Woods Building. On the same page is a description of a portrait study of Bannister by Charles H. Springer which was painted in 1892.

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“Rhode Island Artists at Buffalo. ”Providence Journal, September 15, 1901, 12.

Helen W. Phelps was the only Rhode Islander to get an award at Buffalo. She studied under Edward Bannister according to the article.

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“Memorial Meeting.” Providence Journal, November 24, 1901, 4.

Meeting was held at home of George W. Whitaker on Fruit Hill about the erection of a monument for Bannister. John N. Arnold said their work was finished and they had raised $300.00 and a boulder and plaque had been placed on Bannister’s grave during that week. The article describes a reading Mr. Whitaker gave during the meeting and also lists the owners of several of Bannister’s works.

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"Reminiscences of Rhode Island Artists." Providence News, December 12, 1901, page 5.

Includes the texts of a series of papers read before the Rhode Island Veteran Citizens Historical Association including George Whitaker's paper on Edward Bannister.

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“Died at Age 80.” Providence Journal, January 1, 1903.

Obituary for Christiana Carteaux Bannister died Monday, 29 December 1902 at the State Hospital for the Insane. She was a wig maker and hairdresser. She was born in North Kingstown and had a niece Millie Babcock. Service was held at Elmwood Baptist Church. 

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“Deaths.” Providence Journal, January 1, 1903, 6.

Announces the death of Christiana Carteaux Bannister on 29 December 1902.

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“Artists Attended.” Providence Journal, January 3, 1903,  2.

A large gathering of artists attended Christiana Carteaux Bannister’s funeral including John N. Arnold. The Rev. S.A. Blaisdell officiated and mentioned the role Christiana Carteaux Bannister played in the founding of the Home for Aged Colored Women.

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“Municipal Court of the City of Providence.” Providence Journal, February 27, 1903, 8.

Melvenia Babcock, niece of Christiana, requests to become the administrator of Christiana's estate.

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“Municipal Court.” Providence Journal, March 11, 1903, 4.

An administrator of Christiana's estate is approved on March 10.

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​“The 25th Anniversary of the Local Art Club.” Providence Journal, April 30, 1905. 25.

According to the article the idea of the Art Club originated with George W. Whitaker, who then mentioned it to Edward Bannister in February 1878. Charles Walter Stetson was then brought into the discussion. A meeting was held on 12 February 1878 at Bannister’s studio on College Street. The article goes on to describe the charter given by the state and the first shows organized by the club.

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"Tax Collector's Notice." Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner, March 10, 1906, 4.

Lists 4 lots of land in Warwick, Rhode Island taxed to Edward Bannister and his wife that will be sold at public auction. Those are Nos. 52 & 53 on Haswill Shore Plat and lots 123 &124 on the same plat map. Total taxes were $4.58. 

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E. J. Edwards, "New News of Yesterday: The Negro Who Painted A Prize." Evening Journal (Wilmington, DE), August 26, 1910, 4.

Talks about Edward’s painting Under the Oaks. In 1910 journalist Elisha Jay Edwards tracked the painting down to New York City physician William M. Bullard’s collection.

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“Bates Collection Opened to Public.” (1913 February 28). Providence Journal, February 28, 1913, 7.

Describes the opening at the Rhode Island School of Design the memorial exhibition of the works of art bequeathed by Isaac Comstock Bates. Included in the list of artists is Bannister.

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“Art Treasures of Bates Collection on View.” Providence Journal, March 2, 1913, 47.

In depth description of the collection donated to the Rhode Island School of Design by Isaac Comstock Bates. Includes two paintings by Bannister dated 1877 and 1878.

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“School of Design Growth is Steady.” Providence Journal, April 9, 1914, 14.

Summarizes the Quarterly Report of the Rhode Island School of Design including new acquisitions. A landscape by Edward M. Bannister is on the list.

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“The Dean of Providence Artists.” Providence Journal, January 10, 1915, 47.

Reflections on the life of George Whitaker as an artist in Providence with a lengthy reflection on his relationship with Bannister including a conversation he had with Bannister after discovering he had won first prize in Philadelphia with his painting Under the Oaks.

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“History of Art in Rhode Island During 200 Years.” Providence Journal, December 16, 1923, 67.

Provides a history of artists from the Colonial Period to the 20th century starting with John Smybert. Includes a mention of the Providence Art Club undertaking the job of collecting photographs of Rhode Island artists. The committee in charge of the undertaking assembled a list of almost 200 artists. Bannister is listed as a landscape artist of “unusual excellence.”

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“Twenty-Five Years Ago This Week in Rhode Island.” Providence Journal, January 10, 1926, 76.

Offers a detailed description of the difficulties Bannister encountered when he attempted to enter the Philadelphia Exposition to view his painting Under the Oaks.

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“The World of Art.” Providence Journal, May 2, 1926, 72.

Rhode Island School of Design opens two small galleries with works from former students and from Rhode Island arts who are no longer living. A Painting by Bannister, is hung in the second gallery.

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“Five of the First Pantheon.” Providence Journal, September 11, 1932, 59.

A history and description of the silhouettes in the Providence Art Club. Describes the location of Bannister’s silhouette.

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“Establishment of School of Design and Providence Art Club Significant Events of Latter Part of 19th Century.” Providence Journal, May 24, 1936,  72.

Lengthy article describing the role of these organizations in the development of the arts in Rhode Island. Article talks about Bannister’s role in forming the Art Club.

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“Leader of Notable Group of Painters.” Providence Journal, May 31, 1936, 62.

Article describing the donation of the Fleur de Lys as well as some discussion of the Woods building that was destroyed with the construction of the courthouse. In depth discussion of Edward Banner and Sydney Richmond Burleigh as well as other artists from the time.

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“Providence Art Club Has Long Record of Achievement.” Providence Journal, June 14, 1936, 62.

Full discussion on the history of the Art Club as well as announcing a Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings of members who had died including a landscape by Bannister.

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“Providence Art Club Exhibits Works of Three Founding Members.” Providence Journal, December 28, 1949, 7.

Announces the opening of the Exhibition Paintings and Drawing by Edward Bannister, George Whitaker, and Charles Stetson at the Providence Art Club.

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“Bannister Exhibit Opens Today.” Providence Journal, August 1, 1965, 199.

Announced a memorial exhibition of 32 of Bannister’s paintings at the Olney Street Baptist Church during the first two weeks of August. Paintings come from a Newport collector.

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"Exhibition of tan artist." Baltimore Afro-American Aug 17, 1965, 

Announced the exhibition of 32 of Bannister’s paintings at the Olney Street Baptist Church. Also provides a short biography. Claims married a "Narragansett Indian of noble birth, Christiana Caeteu" [sic]. 

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“Bannister Paintings Offered Smithsonian.” Providence Journal, September 12, 1965, 218.

Ted Trosby, director of the Barrington Art Gallery, entered into negotiations with the Smithsonian to acquire 24 paintings and four sketches, recently displayed at the Olney Street Baptist Church, on behalf of a Newport resident.

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“Exhibition Honors Negro Artist.” Providence Journal, March 20, 1966, 244.

Announces an exhibition of art by Edward Bannister at the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD). The exhibition includes 14 paintings acquired for the Museum of African  Art by G. William Miller, 10 paintings lent by the Providence Art Club and private collectors, and several pieces in the permanent collection of RISD. Article also offers a short biography of Bannister.

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Lowry, Raymond W. "The Negro in History." The Virgin Islands Daily News, September 12, 1970, 6.

Short biography. Credits Bannister with the formation of the Providence Art Club.

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“Legal Notice.” Providence Journal, November 28, 1970, 22.

A notice to the heirs of Edward and Christiana Bannister to “remove clouds from the title of plaintiff’s real estate” located on Custer Street, Warwick, Rhode Island. No known heirs listed for Edward. The known heirs of Christiana are: Malvina B. Babcock, Stella Babcock, Adelle Babcock, Hiram Babcock, Lucy Babcock, Mary B. Babcock, Celia Babcock, Alexander Gilbert.

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Reasons and Patrick. "Negro First-Rate as Lanscapist." Bangor Daily News, April 10-11, 1971, 3.

Short biography of Edward Bannister.

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Swan, Bradford. “RISD collection tops a long list.” Providence Journal, October 10, 1971, 56.

Article talks about the Raid the Attic show by the Providence Art Club. Swan claims that the show includes art that the club acquired in the past resulting in works by its founders and early members (including Bannister). Swan suggests that the Art Club’s role in collecting art has diminished and been assumed by RISD.

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Swan, Bradford. “Quality and Size Both Impressive.” Providence Journal, January 23, 1972, 86.

Reviews the Bannister exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the National Center for Afro-American Artists. Paintings from the collection of G. William Miller who gave the paintings to the Frederick Douglas Institute's Museum of African Art. There were also seven paintings from RISD and six from the Providence Art Club.

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Swan, Bradford. “The Art of Providence From the Lady of the Flowers.” Providence Journal, January 12, 1974,  37.

Full page article describing the Ruth Ely bequest to the Providence Art Club including nine oil paintings and some pencil sketches.

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“Bishop, sixteen others win membership in state’s Heritage Hall of Fame.” Providence Journal, April 17, 1976, 18.

Article announces the induction of Edaward Bannister into the Heritage Hall of Fame.

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Ajello, Arnold, “Bannister Graveside memorial set today.” Providence Journal, June 13, 1976, 319.

Mahler Ryder, an instructor at RISD, organized a project to restore Bannister’s gravestone. Bird and Son Inc. of Walpole, MA contributed $500, Textron gave 220 pounds of bronze, and Peter Crifino, a former RISD student, designed the marker. Article also says that about 65 of Bannister’s paintings are held by the African American Museum in Washington and several more are stored in the attic of the Providence Art Club. Bannister’s wife, Christiana is also referred to.

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Sutton, William. “Graveside rites honor deceased black artist.” Providence Journal, June 14, 1976, 52.

See June 13 article above.

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“Newport Galleries Corner Market.” Providence Journal, August 20, 1977, 49.

The Providence Athenaeum is exhibiting and selling sketches by Edward Bannister.

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“Edward Bannister.” Newport Mercury, February 4, 1977,  5.

Edward Bannister, a noted artist, was one of the original founders of the Providence Art Club which opened in 1880. His wife, Christiana Carteaux Bannister of Portsmouth, became involved in raising money for equal pay for black soldiers of the Civil War. She was a founder of the Home for Aged Colored Women (now Bannister House) in Providence.

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“Events.” Providence Journal, March 20, 1978,  56.

Sketches and slides of Bannister’s work acquired by the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society will be presented at a tea sponsored by the Art Association of Newport.

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“Edward Bannister.” Providence Journal, September 28, 1978,  59.

Rhode Island College Gallery, Bannister Gallery showing works of Edward Bannister, Elizabeth Prophet, Frank Alston, and Wilmer Jennings.

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“Edward Bannister to be honored at ‘Four from Providence’ opening.” Providence Journal, October 1, 1978,  174.

Rhode Island College Gallery, showing works of Edward Bannister, Elizabeth Prophet, Frank Alston, and Wilmer Jennings and the dedication of its gallery in honor of Bannister.

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“Senior citizen’s unit offering play, exhibit on R.I. artist.” Providence Journal, April 21, 1981,  87.

Announces the play “E.M. Bannister, the Artist and His Time” developed by the Living History Project of the Family of Man Foundation and the Black Heritage Society and funded by the Rhode Island Committee for the Humanities.

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“Public Auction.” Providence Journal, June 7, 1981,  34.

Announces a public auction/estate sale of antiques, art work, and silverware. Included in the list is “an important large landscape by Edward M. Bannister.” 

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"Black art collection moves to library in New Orleans." The Washington Afro-American, January 1, 1983, 5.

Discusses the move of the Aaron Douglas Collection to the Amistad Research Center. The collection includes 17 watercolors by Bannister.

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Kutner, Janet. "Black artists finding the range." Dallas Morning News, September 6, 1984, 1B.

Review of show "Six Black Masters of American Art" at the Museum of African American Life and Culture on the Bishop College campus in Dallas. Argues that Bannister's paintings did not reflect the real life of Blacks during their time but rather created art indistinguishable from their white counterparts.  

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“Art Club turns current exhibit into ‘community project.’” Providence Journal, January 22, 1986,  94.

Discusses the exhibit, “The Providence Art Club Philosophy and its First Exhibitors of 1880.” Mentions Bannister as a founding member.

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"Hidden heritage : Afro-American art, 1800-1950." Washington Afro-American, September 15, 1986, 15.Announcement of the Charlotte, North Carolina exhibition that included four works by Bannister..

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“Black artists encounter difficulties.” Providence Journal, February 25, 1987,  80.

Article discusses the challenges contemporary artists face in making a living from their art. Bannister is mentioned as an example.

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Griffen, Sharon. “‘Low visibility’ hampers state’s Black artists.” Providence Journal-Bulletin, February 26, 1987,  9.

Article discusses the challenges contemporary artists face in making a living from their art. Bannister is mentioned as an example.

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"Afro-American Exhibit Opens Sunday." Toledo Blade, March 4, 1987, 13.

Announces the opening of the show at the Toledo Museum of Art. Show includes work by Bannister.

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“Newport County Arts and Entertainment.” Providence Journal, April 7, 1988,  109.

The Cushing Gallery will open an exhibition of works from the collection of  Daniel Mechnig including paintings by Bannister.

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Sheffield, Skip. "Unprecedented art collection comes to Boca." Boca Raton News, March 19, 1989, 1E.

Describes the move of the Barnett-Aden Collection from Washington to Boca Raton. Article mentions that Bannister is the oldest artist represented in the collection.

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“Public Auction.” Providence Journal, December 5, 1989,  4.

Advertisement for a public auction where antiques and paintings will be sold. Listed as up for sale is Bannister’s painting Fishing Folk at Mount Hope.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Art Wrap Up.” Providence Journal,May 4, 1990,  68.

Announces an auction by the Rhode Island College Foundation that includes a painting by Bannister.

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MacDonald, Donald. “Art Club is Color-Blind.” Providence Journal, May 14, 1990 ,  44.

Letter to the editor in response to a story published by Bert Wade alleging a “shaby attitude” by the Providence Art Club in response to a female Black artist’s application for membership. MacDonald uses Bannister as an example of the Club’s inclusionary culture. MacDonald also states that the Art Club’s Lady Advisory Board were leaders in the founding of Bannister House. He refers to a published essay by W. Chesley “There’s This About the Providence Art Club.”

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“Continuing Events.” Providence Journal, November 1, 1990,  96.

Announces exhibition entitled “Directions: African American Artists Now” and “Edward M. Bannister, A Rhode Island Master, 1828 -

1901” held at the Newport Art Museum.

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Raynor, Vivien. "Moody Observations of Nature." The New York Times, December 13, 1992. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017.

Critical review of the Edward Mitchell Bannister retrospective at the Whitney Museum's Champion Branch, in Stamford. Review includes some biographical information. 

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“Names.” Providence Journal, July 27, 1993,  4.

Describes unsuccessful effort by Rep. Ray Rickman to have a new street bridge in Providence named after Edward Bannister.

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Bearden, Romare and Harry Henderson. “Portrait of an Artist.” Providence Sunday Journal, Rhode Islander (December 12, 1993), 12-19.

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Davis, Karen A. "Christiana Carteaux Bannister (1819–1902): A supporter of the arts and social causes." Women in R.I. History: Making a Difference. Providence: Providence Journal Co, Providence Journal, March 10 1994,  2.

A short biographical essay about Christiana Bannister. Includes references.

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Lewis, Jo Ann. "Free at Last." The Washington Post, November 6, 1994: G01. 

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"Edward M. Bannister." Spartanburg Herald-Journal, February 5, 1995, C11

Very short biographical note.

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“Who’s who in local women’s history.” Providence Journal,March 3, 1995,  12.

Provides a short paragraph about Christiana. 

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“Making a Difference, Black History, Part 1 of a series.” Providence Sunday Journal, February 9, 1997,  17.

Series of articles highlighting the lives a Black figures. Included are Edward and Christian Bannister. Article also offers an extensive timeline of Black history in Rhode Island.

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Suggs, Ernie. “Strokes of Genius.” The Herald-Sun, February 2, 1997, 63.

Announced the opening of a show to commemorate Edward Bannister’s life and work at the NCCU Art Museum presenting more than 30 original works in “Edward Mitchell Bannister American Landscape Artist.” Article also includes comments about Bannister’s life by Corrine Jennings, the director of the Kenkeleba Gallery in New York.

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“Providence Art Club.” Providence Journal, March 15, 1998,  35.

An exhibition of Bannister paintings at the Dodge House Gallery.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Portraits, artists fill the scene in Rhode Island.” Providence Sunday Journal,August 22, 1999,  92.

In depth exploration of the artistic heritage of Rhode Island. Includes a lengthy discussion of Bannister and other Black artists.

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"The Walter O. Evans collection of African American art." The Item, August 6, 1999, 14A

Announces the opening of the show at the Columbia Museum of Art

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Watson, Vaughn. “Black arts community expands efforts to honor African-American achievements.” Providence Sunday Journal, January 9, 2000,  73.

In depth discussion of the “I’ll Make Me A World” event by Black artists. Bannister is presented as an example of a Black artist who achieved success.

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“Paintings hanging on outcome of court case; Bannister House’s financial woes could spur sale of historic artworks.” Providence Journal, September 17, 2001.

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“Long overdue recognition for Edward Bannister.” Providence Journal, October 18, 2001,  83.

A retrospective exhibition of 50 of Bannister’s paintings at the Roger King Gallery of Fine Art.

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“Metro Notes.” Providence Journal, October 18, 2002,  35.

The Black Heritage Society announces a presentation on Victor D. Chambers by Harriette C. Renaldi. Claims that Chambers became an artist after seeing Bannister’s painting at the Philadelphia Centennial.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Landscapes by Bannister.” Providence Journal, January 16, 2003,  56.

Announces an exhibition at Newport’s Roger King gallery of late 19th and early 20th century landscapes including some paintings by Bannister.

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Giarusso, Edward. “Letter to the Editor.” Providence Journal, June 2, 2003,  9.

This letter expresses deep disappointment in the decision by the Atheneum to break up and sell individual pages of a sketchbook of water colors and pencil sketches by Bannister.

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Lee, Felicia. "Patching History: A Giant Who's Who Of Black America." The New York Times, April 10, 2004, B7.

"Edward Bannister, a painter known primarily for his landscapes, achieved a prominence rare for black artists of his era."

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“On the calendar.” Providence Journal, January 30, 2005,  139.

Joaquina Bela Teixeira, society Director of the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society,  will present a slideshow and lecture on Edward Bannister on 22 February.

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“Arts.” Providence Journal, April 27, 2006,  54.

Roger King Gallery of Fine Arts announces exhibition Mr. Bannister meets Mr. Batcheller.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Rhode Island painters embrace Barbizon school.” Providence Journal, November 25, 2007,  87.

A review of the Newport Art Museum exhibit “Barbizon to Impressionism: Rhode Island Painters of the Late Nineteenth Century.” The author declares the Providence Art Club to be an “early Barbizon hotbed.” Bannister’s influence is frequently mentioned.

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“Art Forum.”  Providence Journal, November 27, 2007,  4.

An educational forum will be held in conjunction with Newport Art Museum’s exhibit “Barbizon to Impressionism: Rhode Island Painters of the Late Nineteenth Century.” Speakers include James Montford who will talk about  Edward M. Bannister, the artist.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Portraits are like windows into our past.” Providence Journal, October 16, 2008,  40.

Review of a show by William Vareika Fine Arts in Newport. Included in the show is Bannister’s portrait of Christiana.

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Downing, Neil. “Black contributions kept alive.” Providence Journal, March 1, 2009,  12.

Describes a bus tour of College Hill organized by the Rhode Island Historical Society and conducted by Ray Rickman. One of the stops included Bannister’s house on Benevolent Street which is described as boarded up and used to store refrigerators by Brown University.

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“Rickman talks about Bannister.” Providence Journal, May 5, 2010,  35.

Announcement that historian Ray Rickman will talk about Bannister’s life and art.

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Van Siclen, Bill. “Art Club founders would be proud.” Providence Journal, September 5, 2010,  35.

Announces the Providence Art Club’s plan to celebrate its 130 year anniversary by hosting the largest exhibition in Club history of paintings by Edward Bannister and George W. Whitaker. Article goes into great detail about both artists.

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“African-American art at auction.” Providence Journal, February 13, 2014,  29.

Announcing a curated auction by Swann Auction Galleries entitled, “Shadows Uplifted: The Rise of African-American Fine Art.” Auction includes four landscape paintings by Edward Bannister, one called “Untitled (Rhode Island Landscape” valued between $8,00 and $12,000. 

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Hill, John. “Revealing 100 years of cultural touchstones.” Providence Journal, February 14, 2014,  1.

Announces the creation by Brown faculty and students of an online guide to sites in Providence with connections to Black artists like Edward Bannister.

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Sweren, Evan. "For Sale: the Bannister House." The Brown Daily Herald, February 27, 2015. Archived from the original on August 11, 2020. 

Detailed discussion regarding the historical significance of the Bannister house and his life.

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Smith, Michelle. "Push to Name Street for Abolitionists Instead of Slaver.” Canadian Press, The, October 10, 2017.

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Mitra, Mili. "Mitra '18: In Support of Bannister Street." The Brown Daily Herald, November 1, 2017. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. 

Article in support of renaming Magee Street — named after the slave trader William F. Megee — as Bannister Street, in honor of Edward and Christina Bannister.  

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“Gilbert Stuart Museum, Bell Gallery.” Providence Journal, June 14, 2018,  28.

Announces the exhibition, “The Art of Edward M. Bannister, A Rhode Island Masters Exhibition.”

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“19 oils show painter’s place in Rhode Island art.” Providence Journal, July 8, 2018,  45.

A review of the exhibition, “The Art of Edward M. Bannister, A Rhode Island Masters Exhibition” at the Gilbert Stuart Museum.

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Castro, Alexander. “I am my Beloved, My Beloved is me.” The Newport Daily News, August 13, 2018.

Exhibition celebrates 19th century African-American artist Edward Bannister's artistic partnership with his wife Christiana Carteaux with an interview with Nancy Whipple Grinnell.

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Whyte, Murray. “A deeper look at Edward Mitchell Bannister, the Black painter who changed Providence.” The Boston Globe, February 4, 2021.

Offers a detailed discussion of Bannister’s legacy as an artist. Also claims he was a founding board member of RISD.

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Cranston, G.T. “The View From Swamptown: Christiana Bannister was a trailblazer whose legacy lives on.” The Independent, February 28, 2021.

A very detailed and informative article about Christiana Babcock. Identifies her parents as John and Mary Babcock. They lived in the southwest corner of North Kingstown, past Slocumville and Shermantown, in an area that was always known as “Dark Corners.” Dark Corners nestled up against Stony Fort, and although Stony Fort was officially part of South Kingstown, everyone knew it to be Narragansett tribal land. Also says that she moved to Salem, Massachusetts when her older brother Charles married Cecilia Remond and he took her with him as he relocated to his new bride’s hometown of Salem.

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Rasquinha, Rhea. "An Extraordinary Woman: The Legacy of Christiana Carteaux Bannister, Community Leaders work to Honor Bannisters with Statue, Plaque."  The Brown Daily Herald, March 23, 2023.

An article that highlights the work by the Providence Art Club to commemorate Edward Bannister with a statue and by Ray Rickman to commemorate Christiana with a plaque.

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Rasquinha, Rhea. "No Rain on This Parade: Celebrating the new Edward Mitchell Bannister statue."  The Brown Daily Herald, September 10, 2023.

An article describing the unveiling of the Bannister Statue.

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Jeanette Deforge. "Where in the World is Under the Oaks." Springfield Republican, April; 21, 2024.

An article describing the search for Under the Oaks by Edward Shein, Nick Bruno, and Michael McGuigan.

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"Masterpiece painting tracked to Springfield after missing for 100 years." Gulf Today, April; 23, 2024.

An article describing the search for Under the Oaks by Edward Shein, Nick Bruno, and Michael McGuigan.